Excavations and trenches: Excavation, trenching, shaft sinking and tunneling operations can be very dangerous. Every year in Saskatchewan, workers in the industry suffer misfortune. This is why Saskatchewan occupational health and safety legislation requires employers to take extensive precautions to protect workers. Learn more.
Exposure to harmful substances: In Saskatchewan, The Occupational Health and Safety Regulations, 1996 require regular showers in the workplace where workers’ skin is regularly exposed to harmful or offensive substances, emergency showers where workers could be quickly injured after substantial skin contamination by corrosive or other harmful substances and eyewashes where workers’ eyes could be quickly injured by corrosive or other harmful substances. Some workplaces may require both regular and emergency showers. Learn more.
The drug fentanyl and its equivalents are a possible hazard to a number of responders who might come in contact with the opioids in the course of their work.
The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) indicates that responders are most likely to come across illegally-manufactured fentanyl in powder, tablet and liquid form through:
- Mucous membrane contact
- Skin exposure such as needlestick.
Any of those exposure routes can possibly quickly result in life-threatening respiratory depression.
While brief skin contact with fentanyl or its equivalents aren’t expected to result in toxic effects if visible contamination is rapidly removed, skin contact with large volumes of highly concentrated powder over an extended period of time is a potential exposure route.
NIOSH identifies four job categories where responders may come in contact with fentanyl and its equivalents:
- Pre-hospital patient care
Emergency medical services (EMS) providers, including first responders, fire department and private companies, may attend to persons with suspected fentanyl overdose. Drugs may be on or near the individual.
- Law enforcement
Officers might encounter fentanyl during day-to-day activities including traffic stops, responding to fentanyl overdose calls and detaining and searching individuals.
- Investigation and evidence handling
Anyone in law enforcement who conducts fentanyl investigations are at risk of potentially encountering fentanyl. This may include executing search warrants and collecting, transporting and storing evidence.
Evidence collection might aerosolize fentanyl powder. Anyone handling evidence in the chain of custody may come in contact with fentanyl unless procedures are in place to prevent exposures.
- Special operations and decontamination
Workers performing special operations who are expected to come into contact with a large amount of fentanyl are potentially at risk.This includes hazardous material incident response teams responding to a spill or release and law enforcement officers executing search warrants on opioid distribution sites or other tactical operations. These activities may also aerosolize fentanyl.
- Working dogs
Working dogs, particularly police K-9s executing detection activities are also potentially at risk of exposure to fentanyl and its equivalents. If dogs are exposed, residual powder may remain on the dog’s body. Working dogs should be removed from an area with suspected or known fentanyl.
What can you do to protect yourself against fentanyl and its equivalents?
NIOSH identifies a number of standard safe operating procedures. When you first arrive on scene, analyze the situation, assess the risks for hazards and determine if fentanyl or other drugs are expected to be present. If so:
- Do not eat, drink, smoke or use the bathroom while working in an area with suspected or known fentanyl.
- Do not touch your eyes, mouth and nose after touching any surface that might be contaminated with fentanyl.
- Wash your hands with soap and water immediately after a potential exposure and after leaving a scene with suspected or known fentanyl. Do not use hand sanitizers or bleach solutions.
- Do not perform tasks or operations that might aerosolize fentanyl unless you are appropriately trained with higher levels of personal protective equipment (PPE).
- Do not perform field testing of fentanyl or its equivalents unless you are appropriately trained and have developed an incident-specific plan to perform field testing in the appropriate PPE.
The following table from NIOSH provides PPE recommendations for protection against fentanyl and its equivalents:
For more information on preventing occupational fentanyl exposure to emergency responders, visit the NIOSH website.
Firefighter cancer: The Saskatchewan Workers’ Compensation Board commissioned a pilot program with the Firefighter Cancer Consultants after seeing a significant increase in firefighter occupational cancer diagnoses and deaths. The purpose of the pilot program was to gain a better understanding of the current firefighter cancer preventive landscape throughout the providence. Learn more.
Heat stress disorders: Numerous factors, like work load, clothing, and environmental conditions (i.e. temperature, humidity, air current & radiant heat), contribute to the heat balance in our bodies. If any of the factors are overlooked when managing work in hot conditions, heat stress disorders can develop. Learn more.
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas: Hydrogen sulfide (also referred to as sour gas, acid gas, stink damp, rotten egg gas or sulphureted hydrogen) is a highly toxic, colourless gas with the characteristic foul odor of rotten eggs. The gas can be very pungent at first, but quickly deadens the sense of smell which can cause victims to be unaware of its presence until it’s too late. Learn more.
Indoor air quality: Many indoor air quality concerns can be prevented by ensuring ventilation is adequate, temperatures and humidity levels are comfortable and by minimizing airborne contaminants. Training, educating and forewarning workers about events that could affect air quality may also minimize concerns. Learn more.
Toxins in heavy construction: Some people may be surprised to learn that highway workers are at an increased risk for health hazards due to their profession. Highway construction workers can be exposed to a variety of toxic substances that can enter the body through breathing, swallowing and/or absorption through the skin. Learn more.
West Nile virus: West Nile virus has been present in Saskatchewan since 2002. As of 2018, there have been 158 neuroinvasive cases and 17 deaths. Employers must take steps to reduce the risk to outdoor workers. People usually get the disease after being bitten by an infected mosquito. Therefore, all outdoor workers need to take precautions to reduce their chances of being bitten by mosquitoes. Learn more.